In virtually every line of the pulp and papermaking process, freshwater, process liquids and liquors flow through pipes, filters and screens, and are stored in tanks. The need for paper products in our society is critical, as we have seen during the pandemic of 2020. How the process efficiently and responsibly creates the products is a complex maze of technology that transforms trees into paper. Caustic and corrosive chemicals – sodium hydroxide, sodium sulfide, sodium sulfate and sodium carbonate – are at the heart of these processes. In the process flows, there are wide swings in pH levels as chemical reactions galore advance toward making the finished product we use every day.