Membrane technology continues to advance at a lightning pace. A type of separation process, membrane technology, is being utilized in processes as varied as absorption, distillation, fouling, microfiltration, nanofiltration, reverse osmosis, ultrafiltration, and desalination. And as the technology advances, so does the dependence on piping systems to maintain fluid stream purity.
Every day, industrial plant professionals must balance many roles and responsibilities that have a direct bearing on OPEX and CAPEX. If they operate facilities with metallic piping systems, part of the job of necessity involves becoming an expert on corrosion – its causes, mitigation and prevention – and devoting significant resources to it from both categories.
Delve deeper into CPVC's capabilities, benefits and performance in the harshest industrial applications.
Merriam-Webster defines generic as “anything that is not sold or made under a particular brand name.” But when it comes to materials, what’s in a brand name, and how does a branded material differ from a generic? For instance, in some product categories, a generic version of a material may well be an acceptable choice to accomplish the function at hand.
In power plant operations, process chemicals can degrade and reduce the service life of many metal piping systems, potentially causing expensive unscheduled maintenance, disruptive outages in critical operations, and property-damaging leaks in these systems. All of these issues require responsible operators to establish and implement corrosion control and management programs to assure plant availability. These programs typically amount to an ongoing and significant outlay of financial and other resources.
There is no playbook for manufacturing in a 100-year pandemic, but in the midst of a crisis, game plans come together in a hurry. The team producing Lubrizol CPVC compounds in Louisville, Kentucky, has found that when people pull together, rely on their value system in decision making, and know they can depend on each other, it is possible to rise to the most unforeseen challenges.
Basic principles of physics and thermodynamics dictate that the surface temperature of an industrial piping system when installed during ambient temperature conditions will change when it transitions to the operating state for which the system is designed. This is especially true if the piping system is installed during one season and goes into service in another. Outside installations are always subject to the thermal cycling of a typical day as well as seasonal climate cycling. In addition, our experience and understanding of external installations shows us that the solar energy of the sun can impact the surface temperature of piping in a pipe rack, adding heat that can lead to a total surface temperature significantly higher than the ambient temperature of the region.
The hazardous caustic and corrosive chemicals and levels of heat and pressure involved in treating and moving large volumes of water in power plant operations make it incumbent upon system designers to choose from among the few materials for pipe, valves and fittings that can reliably stand up to these rigors. In plants from gas turbine combined cycle to nuclear to combined heat and power, one of the most reliable such materials is thermoplastic Corzan® CPVC.
In the life of a chemical processing or industrial plant, the conflict between adopting a lifecycle view of the operation vs. lower up-front capital expenditures is always present. In this context, the perception of “cost” has various implications for decision-making. Leadership will always have to balance the many factors that affect its long-term operations methodology.
The question often arises, can I weld pipe and sheet together? The answer is yes, but the process requires skilled thermoplastic welders who are properly trained and have been tested just as metallic certified welders are tested.
Manufacturing integrated circuits (or chips) is a highly complex process that presents unique challenges for industrial piping systems. Toxic, highly corrosive and flammable gases and liquids can compromise a system’s integrity, causing process leaks and premature failure. In addition, few piping materials can meet the high purity standards required for cleanrooms.
Lubrizol's Bryan Hutton to Speak at the Chlorine Institute Technology Symposium on March 15 Chemical manufacturing facilities have a tremendous burden of providing safe, economical and environmentally friendly operations. And while the plant engineering community has had extensive training with metallic systems, it’s had limited exposure to the capabilities and performance data of industrial thermoplastics, specifically CPVC.
Corrosion is a widespread and expensive problem that impacts every industry around the globe. In 2016, NACE International released the "International Measures of Prevention, Application and Economics of Corrosion Technology (IMPACT)" study, which estimated the global cost of corrosion at approximately $2.5 trillion (USD).
Designers and engineers often specified metal piping for industrial applications in the past based on the material’s familiarity. Today, metal piping is still used in some environments because of misperceptions regarding chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) piping.
Environmental stress cracking (ESC) is one of the leading causes of plastic pipe failure. It occurs when the piping material is simultaneously subjected to mechanical stress and certain types of chemicals.
Minimizing energy costs is one of the main areas of opportunity for plant owners looking to increase their bottom-line. At a macro level, according to the U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), the industrial sector uses more energy than any other sector, consuming about 54% of the world’s total delivered energy. Engineers are always looking for ways to optimize system processes to improve energy efficiency to decrease energy expenses. Proper piping material selection is one opportunity to limit energy consumption. Take a look at how CPVC piping compares to metal piping in terms of energy efficiency across a system’s lifecycle, even before the pipe is installed.
Industrial plants are challenging environments for piping systems, which are subject to extreme pressures, temperatures, stress and even impact. No matter what piping material is specified, piping system stresses must be considered and modifications made during system design to prevent issues that could require extensive repair or replacement.
Downtime can be a significant financial burden for an industrial plant, taking a toll on the facility’s productivity and bottom line. Planning for an approaching upgrade to a plant’s piping system can help expedite the update while limiting downtime and minimizing costs.
Designers and engineers who specify piping systems want the correct product for the application to ensure reliable long-term, cost-effective performance. Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) meets the needs of a wide range of applications as an engineering thermoplastic that is important to the project flow process.
Weight matters for piping systems used for industrial applications. It makes sense that a lightweight piping system such as chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) is easier to transport, store and handle than heavier piping like steel.
Wastewater treatment processes are more complex than ever, complicated by stricter discharge and odor standards, increased plant flows, fewer sludge disposal options, stronger EPA piping regulations and tighter budgets. The good news is that opportunities exist to select piping materials that improve plant performance while reducing treatment costs and keeping facilities compliant.
Water presents the ideal environment for bacterial microbe development. Harmless microbials occur naturally in water and most are completely safe. Bacterial microbe growth in pipes, however, can affect water quality and create contamination problems. As microbes grow, they attach to the wetted surfaces in the water distribution system and protect themselves from disinfecting agents by forming microbial biofilms.
Confidence is one of the greatest assets an industrial piping system can offer – confidence the system will perform as expected.
Every year, wastewater treatment plants across the U.S. treat an estimated 61 cubic kilometers of wastewater – roughly the same volume of water that flows over Niagara Falls during a 12-month period. The wastewater treatment process requires large vessels and piping systems to convey and handle very polluted water and highly corrosive and caustic chemicals.
Designers and engineers often have dozens of choices when specifying piping systems for industrial environments. Over the years, however, plastic piping such as chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) has become increasingly popular due to performance advantages such as outstanding corrosion resistance. As a thermoplastic, CPVC piping also offers optimum flow rates, safety benefits, ease of installation and little or no maintenance.
Many industrial environments such as the chemical processing industry, power generation plants, mineral processing and oil and gas operations use piping systems that are partially or completely installed outdoors. Piping systems used in outdoor applications must be able to maintain their basic physical properties after prolonged exposure to the elements – wind, rain/humidity, direct sunlight and seasonal and extreme temperatures.
Americans today produce and consume more energy, drive more miles and live more comfortably than ever before while reaping the rewards of a cleaner environment. These facts are backed by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) air quality data and refute some claims that air quality in the U.S. is getting worse.
Playwright George Bernard Shaw once stated that “the single biggest problem in communication is the illusion that it has taken place.” This statement applies to many life and business situations but is especially true for industrial facilities undergoing plant upgrades.
Fertilizer, batteries and detergent have one thing in common – all of these products utilize sulfuric acid in the production process. When properly processed and handled, sulfuric acid is one of the most useful and common chemicals used by multiple industries worldwide.
When the snow flies this winter, we’ll remain comfortable inside our homes, office buildings or the industrial facilities where we work because of the boiler systems that provide heat. Industrial hot water boiler systems that generate thermal heat are similar to the heating boilers found in the basement or crawl space of most homes – except they are much larger to accommodate the application needs. Industries such as food processing, for example, require significant thermal energy to boil or heat raw foods during processing.
Not even the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) knows how many different chemicals are in use today – although the agency has more than 85,000 chemicals listed as substances that fall under the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA).
Summertime is filled with images of beautiful blue skies, green grass, and picturesque sunsets – all part of a blistering hot environment in much of the U.S. During the summer heat, we like our drinks to be cold and our homes, offices and cars to be cool. Did you ever think about how this is accomplished?
Industrial Info Resources is a leading provider of industrial global market intelligence that reported the U.S. and Canadian Chemical Industry would spend $51 billion in 2017, and $51.7 billion in 2018. The group predicts a $53 billion investment in chemical industry capital projects during 2019.
The oil and gas production industry places tremendous demands on its piping systems, with onshore and offshore applications impacted by harsh chemicals, corrosive saltwater environments, low and high temperatures and elevated pressure. The industry primarily relied on metallic piping systems in the past as this was the type of material that was available. In most cases, thermoplastics such as chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) did not have sufficient history within the oil and gas industry for engineers to specify them.
Processes within power generation plants must be reliable and efficient – especially since facilities cannot economically store electric power and must be online and produce power to meet demand. The need for high levels of reliability coupled with the ability to withstand the very harsh conditions present in most power generation plants is inciting designers to specify non-metallic pipe materials such as Corzan CPVC® to achieve long-term, cost-effective performance.
The heat is on for piping systems installed in most industrial environments – in the form of high temperatures, elevated pressure, thermal cycles, excess heat generated by the sun and the heat of exotherms resulting from process upsets and operator error. Fire is also a hazard in many industrial applications, and especially within the chemical processing industry, and requires engineered systems with properties such as ignition resistance, burning resistance and flame spread resistance to help keep workers safe and limit property damage in the event of a fire.
Versatile Corzan CPVC® is specifically engineered to meet performance requirements in the harshest environments across a wide range of industries. The material is inherently inert to most mineral acids, bases, salts and aliphatic hydrocarbons and resists corrosion, a common problem that plagues many industries and results in costly downtime and repairs. CPVC also offers superior mechanical properties to ensure a long service life with minimal pipe maintenance.
Metal may have been the material of choice for industrial piping systems during decades past. But the cost to install and maintain a metal system may overshadow performance advantages such as metal’s strength and its ability to withstand high levels of heat and elevated temperatures.
Industrial applications are demanding environments for any piping system, placing stress on materials and joints. Piping materials and their connections must be able to withstand challenges such as constant vibration and water hammer, extreme temperatures, changing pressures and exposure to highly corrosive chemicals.
Corzan® chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) offers the peace of mind that comes with a piping system that provides superior resistance to corrosive chemicals at high temperatures and pressures. Corzan CPVC can be used for pressurized service up to 200°F and offers a higher pressure rating over most of its useful temperature range than most of the other thermoplastic materials used for industrial piping. as illustrated in the chart below.
Manufacturers fabricating unique products typically require unique processes. Creating distinctive products demands customized equipment that resists corrosive chemicals and harsh mixtures to optimize processes and drive down production costs. Corzan® CPVC has been meeting manufacturers’ material needs for over 60 years, helping to fabricate high quality products that meet their customers’ specific requirements.
Industries invest millions of dollars each year in technology and equipment to grow their productivity, profits and performance. Yet, a silent hazard in the form of corrosion continues to plague industries around the world, with the global cost of corrosion surpassing $2.5 trillion each year, which is 3.4 percent of the global GDP. Corrosion costs the U.S. production and manufacturing sector $17.6 billion annually.
Power generation plants move large quantities of water, caustics and corrosive chemicals during the power production process. Designing piping systems for these facilities can be a challenge based on the very nature of the chemicals used and the high levels of heat and pressure.
Industrial piping design engineers are naturally cautious people. They like to feel confident that the system they install will operate safely and reliably over the long term.
A surge in pressure within a piping system, known as water or fluid hammer, occurs whenever the linear flow rate of fluid in pipe changes quickly – when pumps start or stop, valves open or close with quick acting actuation devices, or entrapped air moves within the system. The longer the pipe line and the faster the fluid is moving, the greater potential for shock.
A bottleneck within a plant operation generally occurs when a portion of the process throughput slows down, reducing process efficiency and profitability. The identification of process bottlenecks is in itself a skill and an artform. Proper due diligence during the design, material selection, procurement and installation of a piping system can eliminate many of the bottlenecks that are often associated with metallic piping systems.
Corrosion is a tremendous and ongoing challenge, with a 2016 study released by the National Association of Corrosion Engineers known as NACE International estimating the global cost of corrosion at $2.5 trillion. NACE is the global leader in developing corrosion prevention and control standards, certification and educational resources.
It was another quiet Sunday morning in the Houston metro area before residents were awakened by a bolstering fire and smoke when a storage vessel caught fire and quickly clouded the sky. One of the greatest safety concerns among many chemical plants and other industrial facilities had become a reality. When a fire breaks out, normal operations can turn into chaos and life-threatening situations can develop within seconds as evidenced by the Houston fire and others. For this reason, fire performance must always be evaluated when selecting piping materials, including thermoplastics. Designers and engineers should select engineered systems with proven performance and properties such as a low flash ignition temperature, burning resistance, flame spread resistance and limiting oxygen index (LOI) to create a safer, more reliable and productive environment.
It was in 1911 that the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (B&PVC) became a topic of great discussion born out of the need to protect public safety. Invention of the steam engine, boilers, and other sources of pressure systems made it apparent that something must be done.
Threading and Flanging CPVC Piping Systems Issues that develop in piping systems often involve connections, which is why it is important to select and properly install all transitions/connections. Depending on the application and the pipe size, CPVC pipe transitions may be threaded or flanged, although flanging is generally the preferred method especially when disassembly is required.
Based in Ocean Springs, Mississippi, B & D Plastics is a leader in the design and fabrication of fiberglass and dual laminate process equipment. The company sought a material that would provide the mechanical strength and chemical resistance needed to enhance the structural integrity of its fabricated composite structures, including scrubbers, towers, evaporators, precipitators, clarifiers, storage tanks and piping systems.
The goal for all design/build teams is to deliver a project that is in spec and under budget. One key to meeting this goal is to involve the proper engineering, procurement and construction personnel throughout the design/build process – whether the individuals are internal experts or outside consultants. Team members should bring the right blend of experience, expertise and curiosity about innovative new products to achieve the desired results.
There are a few available methods for joining CPVC pipes and fittings, but solvent welding is often recommended as the optimal solution because of the strong, reliable bond it forms between adjoining pieces of material. Solvent cement isn’t glue—rather, it’s a chemical compound that untangles the surface molecules of CPVC material, freeing them to bond with those of another CPVC piece. The result is a fully fused joint that maintains the chemical resistance, temperature and pressure bearing capabilities of the original material. To reach optimal joint strength, the solvent cement must adequately soften the surface material, and enough time must be allowed for setting and curing. Curing is when the solvent flashes off or evaporates, allowing the newly formed joint to dry and harden. In cold weather applications, solvent cement and CPVC molecules slow down, requiring more solvent to soften the material and more time to cure or harden the joint. Conversely, in hot environments, the molecules speed up, creating different potential challenges for installers. By following a few simple guidelines, reliable CPVC joints can be solvent welded at temperatures exceeding 95°F (35°C).
Mineral processing plants require safe, reliable piping systems that ensure facilities remain operational and more productive over the long term. But, mineral processing facilities present tough challenges for piping systems, including the presence of aggressive chemicals, temperature extremes, continual exposure to ultraviolet radiation and more.
Every company has safety policies to protect its workers, and employee safety should always be the most important consideration when selecting an industrial piping system. Is the piping system functional and reliable? Will it provide the long-term performance expected without bursting or resulting in leaking pipe that can expose workers to dangerous chemicals?
Power generation plants of all types – from gas turbine combined cycle to combined heat and power – move large quantities of water, caustics and corrosives. Corzan® CPVC (chlorinated polyvinyl chloride) piping has provided operational advantages and cost savings to the power generation industry for decades, enhancing performance in a range of applications in new and existing facilities for long-term reliability.
Many companies have corporate policies regarding sustainability and encourage employees to specify sustainable products provided by suppliers committed to environmental responsibility and improving lives. And even though piping systems may be installed overhead or underground where they are not as visible, they play an important role in helping companies achieve their green goals.
The results of friction loss in industrial piping systems can decrease operational efficiency and productivity – and eventually result in downtime and costly repairs. Friction loss affects flow rate and fluid pressure within the piping system and must be considered during system design.
According to the U.S. Geological Survey, power generation plants are the largest source of U.S. water withdrawals and account for about 40 percent of the total water withdrawn from various sources in the United States.
Industrial facilities require reliable equipment that ensures long-term performance for maximum productivity and minimal downtime. When choosing a piping system for an industrial application such as a hydrochloric acid or sodium hypochlorite facility, specifiers must consider the joining method for a piping material and how it will impact labor costs, productivity and service life.
Long-term performance, trouble free operation and consistent results are critical to manufacturing facilities’ operational success. While facilities must first satisfy their functional needs, the initial cost of construction is often a factor when selecting the right piping for a chemical processing plant. Purchase price is only part of the equation when choosing a piping system that will provide long-term performance. A lifecycle cost analysis tailored to the specific application can help you get the best value, considering factors such as fluid temperature, line pressures, the chemical environment, etc.
An atmospheric tank stores liquids at atmospheric pressure. Contained in one of these vessels may be hydrochloric acid, chlorine dioxide, sulfuric acid or some other corrosive, potentially hazardous solution. Each vessel is specially designed, constructed and installed to meet the specific requirements of the plant. Once the vessel has been put into use, the job is not done. Sometimes, ideal conditions are not perfectly maintained or unforeseen events occur, causing problems for the tank. To keep plant workers safe, and to protect the large investment in the plant, inspections must be a fundamental part of the plant’s safety program. Follow a specified timeline, technique and team to avoid a costly and hazardous failure.
Biological contamination presents a serious concern for many applications, even in industrial plants. Biofilm formation allows unsafe bacteria and organisms to grow and contaminate supplies of water and other transported fluids. Considering alternative piping materials ideally suited to resist biofilm formation can help minimize this significant health risk.
This post was originally published in November of 2017, and has been updated with more information and resources, including two burn test videos. When we talk about plastic and fire resistance, most people conjure up images of melting plastic in a campfire or bending plastic spoons with a lighter. While many plastics don’t stand up well to heat and fire (namely polypropylene and polyethylene), it’s not true of all thermoplastics. Specifically, chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) is engineered to limit flammability and smoke production. In fact, many applications that specify CPVC piping because of its heat, pressure and corrosion resistance capabilities do so because it also satisfies strict regulations around flame and smoke resistance. But what qualities should you look for in a thermoplastic piping system to ensure it satisfies your application’s fire resistance requirements?
This post was originally published in July of 2017, and has been updated with more information and resources, including a solvent cement joint burst test video. When installing chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) piping systems, you have a few different options to join the piping and fittings. Depending on the pipe size, the pipe and fittings can be threaded or flanged together, each offering a strong, durable union. However, for most applications, Corzan® Industrial Systems recommends solvent cement welding. Solvent cement is not glue. Instead it is a fast, easy installation process that uses solvents and resin to chemically fuse the pipe and fitting together at a molecular level, essentially creating one continuous piece of plastic. In fact, solvent cement is the only joining method recommended for system features like expansion loops because it allows the pipe to bend and move without breaking or weakening the joint seal. To ensure the solvent cement is applied properly throughout your process system, we've put together the following dos and don’ts to remember throughout the seven step joining process. If the provided solvent cement installation do's and don'ts are followed, see how reliable the joints become by watching the burst test video below.
The following is an excerpt from “CPVC Use in the Chemical Processing Industry.” Download the full ebook to learn more about where CPVC can be used in the chemical processing industry, which chemicals CPVC stands up against and how CPVC compares to alternatives in various applications. The chemicals market, according to Chemical Processing, is currently worth around $1 trillion and is projected to grow to more than $5 trillion by 2022. With 40,000 existing facilities—and thousands more planned—the chemical processing industry (CPI) is becoming increasingly competitive. Broadly defined as the chemical conversion of raw materials to finished products, the Chemical Processing Industry includes the following (and much more): Traditional chemicals, both organic and inorganic Petroleum Petrochemical Refining Pharmaceutical facilities Marine support and offshore In this growing sector, plant managers and engineers seek systems that are more cost effective, reliable and specially engineered to meet their process’ demands. What is the role of piping material selection in recognizing greater plant performance and reliability?
This post was originally published in November of 2017, but has been updated to be more comprehensive, including a video of CPVC during an impact test. Whether used for general drainage, fire suppression, mining, or another industrial application, CPVC piping systems may need to be run underground. Most concerns about underground CPVC usage arise from incorrect assumptions about CPVC’s physical properties, specifically impact resistance. Underground piping is exposed to: Various-sized rocks and other abrasives. The weight of the backfill and any surfacing material. Vehicle and/or machinery traffic (depending on the application). Corrosives found within the soil. Fluctuating, potentially extreme temperatures. These potentially harmful conditions beg the question: Can CPVC piping be buried?
In the 1930s, chlorine gas became commercially available and applications around the world began to take advantage of it as a disinfectant. Today, chlorine is the most widely used disinfectant in water and wastewater treatment processes. Growing concern over the past few decades about the health and safety of chlorine, especially in its gaseous state, has many plants considering alternatives.
In March of 2005, an explosion at a Texas City BP oil refinery (the third largest in the United States) killed 15 workers, injured another 180 and severely damaged the plant. The explosion occurred when a distillation tower flooded with hydrocarbons and became over pressurized. Though not directly caused by a piping failure, it was largely the result of improper safety procedures and red flags over the preceding decade, including: Broken alarms Broken gauges Overly thinned pipe Five managers over a six year span A critical component of plant safety, which could help prevent the next failure, is to learn how to maintain and inspect the piping system as part of a comprehensive process safety management (PSM) program. Properly implemented programs help prevent events like the catastrophic Texas City refinery explosion.
This post was originally published in August of 2017, and has been updated with more information and resources, including a video comparison burst test. Since its introduction to the market in 1959 by The Lubrizol Corporation, chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) has proven to be an attractive alternative to traditional industrial metallic piping systems for a variety of chemical process environments. CPVC is inert to most mineral acids, bases, salts and aliphatic hydrocarbons, which eliminates corrosion and scaling concerns. In addition, CPVC offers high impact resistance, pressure capabilities and heat distortion temperature (HDT), making it ideal for harsh industrial applications. By choosing CPVC material, industrial processes can improve their piping system's service life, lower maintenance costs and reduce downtime. But it is important to note, not all CPVC offers the same level of performance, and CPVC should not be confused with the limited capabilities of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) piping.
This post was originally published in December of 2017, but has been updated to be more comprehensive, including a video of CPVC during a flattening test. Linear expansion is an unavoidable phenomenon that affects all piping material—including both metals and plastics. If a run of pipe is constrained at both ends, an increase in temperature will cause the material to expand, resulting in compressive stress. When this mounting force exceeds the material’s allowable stress, damage occurs to the piping system. During piping system design, architects and engineers must build in expansion loops to deflect this compression stress. In each of the three types, a right angle is required. Expansion loops, expansion offsets and changes of direction provide a linear direction for the pipe to move. But, which characteristics of the material enable it to deflect without causing damage to the pipe?
When designing and building industrial systems, including pipes, fittings, valves and tanks, steel is one of the most widely utilized materials. Stainless steel and carbon steel are two common forms that have been used for processing applications for decades. But as political and economic uncertainties compound, the price and supply of commodities like steel becomes more volatile. As of August 2018, the price of steel was 44.2% higher than during the same period last year. After five years of mostly consistent price drops for stainless steel, the recent jump is cause for concern for industrial plants.
For vessels storing hundreds or thousands of gallons of corrosive chemicals, safety is a critical component. To ensure an installed vessel will store chemicals safely, tank design must be based on a documented procedure known as a process safety management (PSM) program. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) outlines general procedures required for PSM programs, which are adopted and adjusted by each plant. The OSHA 1910.119 Process Safety Management of Highly Hazardous Chemicals contains “requirements for preventing or minimizing the consequences of catastrophic releases of toxic, reactive, flammable, or explosive chemicals. These releases may result in toxic, fire or explosion hazards.” The section for mechanical integrity states, “equipment used to process, store, or handle highly hazardous chemicals needs to be designed, constructed, installed and maintained to minimize the risk of releases of such chemicals.” As a result, make important safety steps and considerations in accordance with the PSM program, which ensures all hazards are assessed and addressed in the final vessel.
ASTM F441 is the Standard Specification for CPVC Plastic Pipe, Schedules 40 and 80. Per the standard’s requirements and test methods, CPVC is assessed for “materials, workmanship, dimensions, sustained pressure, burst pressure, flattening and extrusion quality.” Another set of CPVC standards is defined by ASTM D1784. This specification assesses CPVC according to “base resin, impact resistance under notch, tensile strength, modulus of elasticity in tension, deflection temperature under load and flammability.” By specifying CPVC that meets ASTM F441 and ASTM D1784, users should have confidence that their industrial piping systems will perform as expected. Yet, not all approved CPVC is created equal. Within each standard are distinctions that set certain CPVC compound producers and manufacturers apart.
When deliberating between material choices and general industrial piping system design, the primary considerations revolve around pipes and fittings. Specifically, the focus is typically on the pipe and fitting materials’ temperature, pressure and compatibility characteristics. Valve selection is often an afterthought finally considered once those primary decisions are settled. But valve decisions are vast: types include ball valves, gate valves, globe valves, butterfly or wafer valves, check valves, diaphragm valves and more. The number of valves can vary greatly in a system depending on the purpose of the piping system. However, valves are critical to any successful system due to their importance in controlling the flow. Also, because a system is only as strong as its weakest component or joint, valves deserve much greater attention when considering material options.
The following is an excerpt from “CPVC Use in Wastewater Treatment Plants.” Download the full ebook to learn more about where CPVC can be installed in wastewater treatment plants, which chemicals CPVC stands up against and how CPVC compares to alternatives in various applications. Wastewater treatment plants are extremely corrosive environments. During the treatment process, large vessels and piping systems convey polluted water and highly corrosive and caustic chemicals. To keep wastewater treatment plants efficient and cost-effective, appropriate material selection is critical. Corrosion to pipes, valves and fittings caused by chemicals and microbes can greatly impact the bottom line at water and wastewater treatment plants. As a result, engineers and procurement officials turn to an economical, reliable material—chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC).
In an industrial system, and in any piping system, valves are used to restrict, stop or control the flow of fluid. More specifically, some industrial valves are used to: Control the cooling rates of water through cooling lines to regulate the temperature. Manage the flow of concentrated acids or bases flowing through a line. Redirect flow from one line to another at a three-way valve. Restrict flow for system balancing. Prevent reverse flow (check valves). Automatically stop the flow in the event of a system failure. When considering available valves for an industrial system, evaluation depends on both the short term and long term performance of a valve. And depending on the application, one valve may outperform another and provide a superior service life.
When specifying vessel and piping materials for handling and storing corrosive acids and bases, many lean on their educational training, personal experience and familiarity with products. If a carbon steel, stainless steel or fiberglass-reinforced plastic (FRP) vessel was specified for a similar situation in the past, the plant or operations manager is likely to choose it again, regardless of the expected service life. Relying on personal experience can be valuable, unless there is definitively a better option available. Considering alternatives and the reliability they have delivered in existing applications can help plants recognize greater performance, a longer service life and lower lifecycle costs. To accurately evaluate materials, key comparison factors must first be considered.
This post is an excerpt from the free downloadable ebook, CPVC Use in Power Generation Plants. To access the full ebook, click here. Power generation plants of all types—from gas turbine combined cycle to nuclear to combined heat and power—all require the movement of large amounts of water and handle caustics and corrosives. Unfortunately, due to the nature of the chemicals used and levels of heat and pressure involved, there are few pipe, valve, fitting, ducting and tank liner material choices available that can provide long-term reliability. That said, judiciously assessing these material options on a system-by-system basis can directly increase operational efficiency, minimize downtime and improve bottom-line performance.
Mitigating corrosion is a frequent topic of Corzan® Industrial Systems educational resources, and for good reason. Many industrial applications still use materials that are not compatible with their process out of habit and comfort, leading to corrosion, costly repairs, and system downtime. These results all create significant material, installation and opportunity costs. To mitigate these issues, Corzan Industrial Systems introduces corrosion resistant materials where applicable to increase the safety, efficiency and reliability of industrial plants. With chemical resistance to over 400 chemicals, Corzan CPVC pipes and fittings have been solving compatibility issues for over 60 years. The latest development in that effort is Corzan Industrial Systems’ growing partnership with NACE International.
In our previous post, we discuss the various formulas used to determine flow rate, flow velocity and pressure loss, as well as the factors that piping material selection plays in optimizing fluid handling. Read the full post, here. When designing industrial piping systems, engineers want a system that will minimize expenses over the long term. Excessive energy consumption increases costs and hurts the bottom line. Piping system design attempts to maximize energy usage by minimizing resistance to the fluid flow. The harder pumps have to work to move the fluid through the system, the more energy consumed and money spent. Understanding how pipe fittings, valves and strainers create resistance to fluid flow in industrial piping system helps engineers design more energy-efficient systems.
In industrial plants, we often discuss what is being conveyed in the pipe as a function of system design. How a material performs with respect to corrosion and temperature resistance when interfacing with different fluids is a significant consideration during system design. Nearly equal in importance is how the fluid is moving through the pipe. Flow rate plays a significant role in determining a system’s longevity, as well as its day-to-day energy consumption. Understanding the efficiency with which a fluid can pass through a piping material is a significant step toward ensuring the long-term reliability and cost savings potential of certain materials.
This post was originally published in August 2017 and has been updated with additional information and resources, including The Complete Solvent Cement Guide. Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) pipe and fittings are rapidly growing in popularity in both corrosive and high-temperature applications. One reason is, unlike traditional metallic pipes, CPVC piping systems are inert to most mineral acids, bases and salts found in mineral processing, chemical processing, power generation and wastewater treatment facilities. CPVC piping systems can be joined using flanging, threading or mechanical joining. But in many cases, the recommended method is solvent cement. Solvent cement is a fast, easy and highly reliable process that produces a joint stronger than either the pipe or fitting alone.
Demineralized or deionized water is used for many lab reactions, laboratory equipment washing, industrial processing applications and more. This water has been purified of ions, minerals, bacteria and other organics that may have been present. Any of those contaminates can alter chemical reactions, cause scaling and corrosion for piping systems, and create a number of unique problems for specific applications. Once demineralized and deionized, water can still harm piping systems if the wrong material is specified because pure water becomes more reactive. Learn about the use cases, qualities and preferred piping systems of purified water to keep your flow free of contaminates and your piping system running longer.
You have likely heard it before—more than 70% of the earth is covered by water. However, in terms of potentially consumable water, freshwater only makes up 2.5% of total global water. And 68.7% of all freshwater is bound up in glaciers and ice caps. Put simply, most of the earth’s natural water cannot be easily consumed to sustain life. And with the global population increasing an estimated 83 million people per year, efficient methods for creating safe drinking water must be increasingly adopted. The greatest opportunity for new freshwater is to utilize easily available seawater and convert it to usable drinking water. Desalination is the process used to remove salt from saline water to create potable water. To create a dependable desalination system that will handle its unique demands, specific considerations must be made for the piping material selection.
Contrary to what some may assume, Corzan® Industrial Systems does not produce the final CPVC products used in industrial plants around the globe. Rather, we engineer and manufacture CPVC compound from PVC resin, as the chart depicts below. The Corzan CPVC compound that is shipped to partner manufacturers in pellet or powder form has been fortified with additives to provide superior strength, UV resistance and improved processability for manufacturers. Our proprietary CPVC compound also offers inherent resistance to corrosion, high temperatures and high pressures no matter what final form it takes. Our partner manufacturers transform Corzan CPVC pellets and powder into the piping, fittings, sheet, shapes and other CPVC products end users receive. This process begs the question from potential customers: How does Corzan Industrial Systems ensure each product offers consistent quality regardless of when, where or by whom the product is manufactured?
Manufacturer cleanrooms keep small particles from adversely affecting production quality. Semiconductor plants, for example, often use cleanrooms when layering and etching silicone wafers for computer chips. Because many hazardous, highly reactive gases and liquids are used to keep semiconductor processes clean, accidental fires can occur. Even the smallest fire and subsequent smoke can: Contaminate a cleanroom, putting a semiconductor plant out of operation for extended periods of time. Create a fire hazard and require immediate evacuation. A proactive solution—typically required for cleanrooms—is to use fire retardant materials across the cleanroom that are both difficult to ignite and give off little to no smoke. When specifying cleanroom piping, ducting, flooring and more, semiconductor manufacturers should look for materials tested in accordance with FM 4910 standards.
Labor and related installation expenses can account for more than half of the total investment made in a piping system. In addition to specifying a material that will withstand the chemical and temperature demands of a process, consideration should be given to the installation process. Traditionally, engineers have relied on metal for industrial piping systems due to its durability and their familiarity with the material’s strength and weaknesses. The confidence this familiarity provides is used to help justify the extra installation labor and costs associated with a metal system. At the same time, CPVC (chlorinated polyvinyl chloride) delivers reliability in many similar applications, while also providing a much simpler, faster and less expensive installation. What is it about CPVC that creates these advantages over metal?
When employing salts, brine or other saltwater solutions in industrial processes, the plant’s decision of which piping material greatly impacts lifecycle costs. Some may see corrosion as a necessary evil when dealing with salts, but proper material selection limits unnecessary repairs, downtime and cost. Over the course of years or decades, this can result in millions of dollars saved in direct expenses and opportunity costs caused by downtime.
For any industrial piping or ducting system, it is critical that hangers and supports are correctly spaced. Too much space between supports adds unnecessary stress to your system, causing deflection and sagging. Too little spacing, and you will incur unnecessary expenses. An advantage CPVC has over other thermoplastics is that at elevated temperatures it maintains its structural integrity, requiring fewer supports. Depending on the size of the system, this can create significant advantages across material, design and—most importantly—labor costs. CPVC is more efficient than other thermoplastics Although required support spacing is less for CPVC than other thermoplastics, it is not as rigid as traditional metal piping systems, requiring additional supports. However, in corrosive applications, the additional hangers are a small price to pay for extended system reliability. Ultimately, the number and spacing of hangers and supports will be determined by the system conditions and piping or ducting requirements.
Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) is a versatile compound manufactured into many geometries, including sheet, piping and fittings. When produced as sheet, CPVC can is often fabricated for various industrial products, including tanks, scrubbers, ventilation processes and more. The sheet can also be used as a liner and overwrapped with fiber-reinforced plastic (FRP). FRP-lined CPVC utilizes CPVC’s corrosion resistance and relies on the FRP to increase its heat performance and mechanical strength. Take a look at a few examples of how CPVC sheet is fabricated for use across different industrial plants and applications. For information on other industrial applications where CPVC sheet is used, contact Corzan® Industrial Systems to speak to a representative.
Food, pharmaceutical, chemical and paper industries often use vessels for processing corrosive and caustic substances. Traditionally, these vessels are composed of steel, fiberglass or exotic alloys. Because chemical corrosion often deteriorates metals over time, the need for a more compatible and long-lasting vessel material is apparent. The solution? Dual laminate vessels. Dual laminate vessels are hybrid chemical storage systems made up of a thermoplastic liner and a fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) shell. The FRP component provides mechanical strength to the vessel, while the thermoplastic liner increases the chemical resistance of the inside, preventing corrosion. Thermoplastics allow dual laminate vessels to withstand the effects of highly corrosive chemicals at high temperatures. These chemicals may include: Sodium hypochlorite Hydrochloric acid Cell liquor (brine, sodium hydroxide) Sodium Chloride Sodium hydroxide Demineralized, deoxidized water The inherent chemical resistant properties of thermoplastics, like CPVC, result in longer-lasting containers. This material choice directly reduces the downtime required for repairs and can limit replacements. However, dual laminate vessels must be designed and fabricated specifically for each plant’s applications and needs. Below, we explain how dual laminate vessels are manufactured to withstand the effects of these highly corrosive substances, and the main phases that must be carefully considered.
Power generation plants rely on systems that are both efficient and reliable. Efficiency comes from the optimal usage of energy, while reliability is a result of minimal breaks and corresponding downtime. An important cog in a power generation plant is the cooling water treatment system, which removes unwanted heat within a plant. In the United States, for example, thermoelectric power plants—including coal, nuclear, natural gas and oil—make up about 90% of all power generation plants. Though processes within each type of thermoelectric plant differ, each requires cooling. When the power generation plant’s cooling system cannot efficiently remove heat, especially in warmer climates, the entire plant suffers costs of excess water, wastewater and energy. For cooling systems—which include water loops, towers and headers—our product and engineering team list the primary issues plant managers face, and how schedule 80 CPVC piping can help prevent these problems.
We often receive questions from industrial engineers about CPVC products—including, what goes into creating CPVC, why is it better than other materials, and ultimately, where can CPVC products be purchased? In the engineering and production of industrial CPVC, each step is critical—from raw material to PVC, PVC to CPVC, and CPVC to finished product. The highest quality CPVC products available outperform generic alternatives as a result of innovation and quality control from start to finish.
Every now and then, piping systems require upgrades or repairs, whether as a result of expected chemical corrosion or accidental pipe damage. Alternatively, industrial plants will often pilot test a small run of CPVC in an existing system to verify its compatibility and reliability. When the need to integrate CPVC pipe into an existing system arises, engineers have two priorities: minimize downtime and maximize value—including material costs, labor costs and system lifecycle. Whether your existing system is CPVC, another thermoplastic or metal, CPVC piping may be the ideal replacement solution thanks to its chemical resistance and compatibility, high heat distortion temperature and pressure rating. Fortunately, integrating CPVC into an existing system, regardless of the existing material, is a relatively easy, straightforward process.
Sodium hydroxide, commonly known as caustic soda, is one of the most common industrial chemicals. A versatile alkaline, caustic soda is highly reactive and effective at breaking down certain compounds. Common caustic soda applications include the: Pulp and paper industry for pulping and bleaching processes. Wastewater treatment industry for pH neutralization and wet-air scrubbers. Food and beverage industry as a cleaning agent. Personal care industry, such as soap making. Power generation industry for regenerating ion demineralization resin beds. Semiconductor industry for etching, plating acid neutralization and cleaning. Aluminum processing applications for dissolving compounds and extracting impurities. For processing and storage of caustic soda, metals—such as stainless steel or carbon steel—or thermoplastics—such as polyethylene, polypropylene, PVC, and CPVC—are often used. But the corrosive nature of caustic soda, especially at elevated temperatures and concentrations, can shorten the life of any industrial system. With proper pipe and tank material selection, industrial applications can prolong their useful life.
As the pioneer in chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) technology, Corzan® Industrial Systems has proven its value and reliability for use in many types of industrial plants. To learn more about CPVC and its compatibility and uses across six demanding industrial applications, view our latest infographic. If you prefer not to open the PDF infographic, read on for a text-only version. Corzan® chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) is an important engineering thermoplastic due to its: High heat distortion temperature. Certified for use up to 200°F (93.3°C). Relatively low material cost. Has successfully replaced and outlasted metals and other costly materials. Inherent chemical resistance. Corrosion-free piping to maintain pressure ratings, flow rates and fluid purity, and to prevent costly repairs. Simple and superior installation. Solvent welding fuses the piping and fitting at the molecular level, maintaining system performance. Fire-related safety advantages. Heat transfer coefficient is approximately 1/300th that of steel, and the material does not sustain burning and requires no flame to install. Certified pressure rating. Pressure rated in accordance with ASTM D2837, having a Hydrostatic Design Basis (HDB) of 4000 psi at 72°F (23°C) and 1000 psi at 180°F (82.2°C). Learn more about CPVC by visiting our resource library, featuring ebooks, white papers, practical tools and more.
As the saying goes, “a chain is only as strong as its weakest link.” With an industrial system, the same rule applies. Though welding rod material accounts for a seemingly insignificant fraction of a system, if it fails—whether from corrosion, pressure or temperature demands—the whole system is affected. Due to chlorinated polyvinyl chloride’s (CPVC) inherent chemical resistance and overall performance, CPVC sheet is often fabricated for different industrial uses. Whether the CPVC sheet is fabricated to be the tank lining in an air scrubber, for a storage tank built entirely out of CPVC sheet, or for a specialty fitting, the welded seams must maintain the strength and reliability of the CPVC material. In each case, correct welding rod selection and effective welding techniques directly correlate to how long the system will last before requiring repair.
One of the benefits of working with chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) pipe is that it can be cut with a variety of different tools that don’t require any electricity or heat. However, different cutting methods are preferred over others, depending on the application. When cutting CPVC pipe, it is important to make a square, flat cut. An uneven cut limits the bonding area and weakens the fitting. To help you make the best possible cut, we’ve put together the following dos and don’ts when cutting CPVC pipe in different situations.
This post is an excerpt from the white paper, Chemical Resistance and Chemical Applications for CPVC Pipe and Fittings. To access the full white paper, click here. When considering a piping material for your industrial application, it’s important to evaluate its compatibility with the chemicals you’ll be transferring and storing. CPVC is a widely used piping material because of its superior resistance acids, bases and salts.This compatibility has been proven over nearly 50 years of experience in the field, the chemical resistance capabilities of CPVC have been confirmed through work with numerous outside testing laboratories around the world. Equally important is the fact that chemical resistance has been determined, and confirmed, using two widely accepted standards: ISO 22088 ASTM D543
In industrial applications with harmful particulate and pollutive byproducts, air scrubbers are often used to meet emissions standards. A scrubber is a system that cleans or purifies air by removing gasses, particulates, or otherwise harmful compounds from a system’s emissions. There are many kinds of scrubbers available and their specific functions depend on the compound being removed from the processed stream. For example, power systems require scrubbers along with combustion vents to remove particulates from the generator or boiler. In any scrubber that handles corrosive compounds, CPVC is a viable choice for tank lining, drain piping, and more. Wet scrubbers in particular, which use continuous sprays of neutralizing fluids to control harmful emissions, benefit from the chemical compatibility of CPVC to improve the performance and overall lifespan of the scrubber.
When highly corrosive chemicals are used in industrial processing applications, chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) is often specified. Depending on the unique system conditions and applications, different CPVC piping variations—such as schedule 80 piping, schedule 40 piping, or even CPVC-lined FRP—may be recommended. Use this guide to learn about the general differences between the three options to help determine the CPVC type that is ideal for your application.
Hot air welding is a joining method that uses high heat to make chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) material reach its melt state. Pushed together for a certain amount of time at a specific pressure, this method allows the surface molecules of the two pieces to interlock, fusing them together. Hot air welding is an essential technique for CPVC sheet fabrication and can also be used to join pipes and other geometries when other joining methods are not an option.
Acids are commonly used by industrial plants for a range of applications, from pH adjustment to the manufacture of other important industrial chemicals. Some of the most common acids include: sulfuric, nitric, hydrochloric and phosphoric. These acids are aggressive substances that can be highly corrosive to certain materials. Metals tend to corrode quickly when exposed to acids relative to some thermoplastics. In addition, the high pressure and heat of many industrial processes tend to escalate this corrosion. In the case of high-quality CPVC, the high level of chlorine in the polymer chain helps protect it from the degrading effects of acids. That said, material degradation and corrosion can occur over time. The severity is largely based on material quality and operating temperature, as well as acid concentration and type. Because of the corrosiveness of mineral acids, special considerations must be made when transferring and storing them in an industrial facility.
“Glue” and “solvent cement” are two words often used interchangeably in reference to plastic piping installation. On a basic level, both accomplish the immediate goal of joining. However, the substances are very different in how they work and their respective performance. While glue is an adhesive that connects or “sticks” two pieces together, solvent cement fuses the two pieces together at the molecular level, essentially establishing one uniform piece of material. This fundamental distinction is just the beginning of the differences between the two joining materials.
Throughout the construction process, a number of the products used—such as thread sealants, gaskets and insulation—might come into contact with piping system components. Each of these products includes its own unique chemical makeup that enables it to serve a specific function within the larger system. For example, gaskets combine polymers and lubricants to form a tight, long-lasting seal between flange fittings. The challenge for engineers is certain chemicals, when in contact with a piping material (e.g. steel or CPVC), can weaken the material and cause premature failure. In other words, to ensure the longest life for your piping system, it’s important to select ancillary products that offer the greatest compatibility with your piping material.
Read the full post below or check out the Thermal Expansion Infographic for a snapshot overview of this blog post. All material has inherent thermal properties that affect its characteristics depending on the amount of heat or cold it’s exposed to. The more heat is applied, the more materials tend to expand and soften. The colder the conditions, the more materials tend to contract and harden. In the case of piping systems, we are most concerned with linear expansion and contraction, which affects both metallic and thermoplastic piping materials. If unaccounted for during the piping system design, length fluctuation can lead to costly issues. This is especially true for industrial plant systems, which often subject pipe to extreme temperatures and pressures. For example, if a run of pipe is constrained at both ends, as it heats up linear expansion will cause compressive stress on the material. When this undue force exceeds the allowable stress on the material, it will result in damage to the pipe and potentially brackets, fittings, and valves. Depending on the scope of that damage, plants may be forced to conduct frequent repairs, shut down processes, and potentially replace the piping system prematurely. Fortunately, while expansion and contraction are unavoidable, resultant issues can be easily circumvented with the proper design considerations. Specifically, by employing one of the following deflection mechanisms: Expansion Loops Expansion Offsets Changes of Direction Expansion Joints Before we explain how to deploy each mechanism, we need to look at the four factors that influence their design.
Thermal conductivity is an important consideration in any piping application, from both a safety and liability perspective. A piping system material with lower thermal conductivity will maintain a lower surface temperature when transporting hot fluids. In certain situations, this can reduce the risk of burns to operators who may come in contact with the pipe. This is especially pertinent for individuals working near a valve, pump, or tank inlet, where multiple piping runs exist in close proximity. According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, instances of thermal heat burns caused a median of 6 days away from work in 2016. To achieve a comprehensive picture of CPVC’s thermal conductivity qualities, Corzan® Industrial System engineers recommend starting with a comparison of thermal conductivity ratings.
As CPVC becomes increasingly specified in industrial processing applications, the conversation around how it compares to other piping materials grows. Often, we are asked: How does CPVC piping compare to metal piping? What is the difference between CPVC and PVC? For this post, rather than compare and contrast CPVC’s characteristics to another material, we explore the possible joining methods and specific uses CPVC may have in conjunction with other thermoplastic or metal piping materials.
In any piping system that uses flanges, gaskets are crucial. Gaskets are placed between flanged system components to create strong seals that stop leaks and provide greater reliability. As with piping material, gasket selection and installation play significant roles in the overall performance and life expectancy of a piping system. Specifically, plant maintenance personnel and engineers must consider piping system compatibility, physical properties of the gasket, and installation specifics. Corzan® Industrial Systems’ team of engineers and product specialists recommend starting your search with the fluid flowing through your system.
Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is a familiar and versatile thermoplastic especially known as a piping and fitting material used for residential and commercial plumbing applications. In the same thermoplastic family to PVC is chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC). CPVC, though similar to PVC in name and available product types, exhibits superior resistance to heat and pressure, which enables it to be used in more demanding industrial applications. The difference in heat and pressure resistance stem from the molecular makeup of each material.
This post is an introduction to our resource article, "How CPVC Pipe Pressure Ratings Are Calculated." To be used in pressure piping systems, every material must empirically prove its pressure bearing capabilities. This ensures that plants and facilities are integrating piping that can stand up to the long-term strength demands of their applications. ASTM, ISO and the Plastics Pipe Institute Hydrostatic Stress Board have developed a series of test methodologies and design factors to verify the long-term pressure bearing capabilities of thermoplastic compounds (e.g. chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC)).
The original Corzan® Engineering Design manual included an appendix titled, “Things Not to Hit CPVC Piping With.” It included items like a baseball bat, passenger train and lightsaber. But, first on this list, was a forklift. Unfortunately, due to binder-size restrictions, the appendix had to be omitted. All jokes aside, the reality is accidents do happen and all piping material will sustain some degree of damage if subjected to any significant force, such as a direct, unprovoked forklift attack. But, the severity of that damage and the resultant downtime can be limited by specifying the proper piping material.
This post is an excerpt from our resource article, “Metal v. CPVC Piping Systems — Can CPVC outperform metal piping in industrial applications?” For demanding industrial applications, metal piping materials, such as carbon steel or stainless steel, are the traditional choice. However, with the significant threat scaling poses to metals in industrial applications, should it continue to be? If your plant exclusively considers metal piping materials, viable alternatives are being overlooked. Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) piping systems present significant advantages to metal in environments prone to scaling. Learn more scaling in metal and CPVC piping systems below.
This post is an excerpt from our resource article, “Metal v. CPVC Piping Systems — Can CPVC outperform metal piping in industrial applications?” For decades, metal piping systems have been the standard choice of engineers and architects in industrial applications because of its strength and durability in high heat and pressure environments. However, metal piping is not without its drawbacks. Specifically, if your plant uses stainless steel, carbon steel or another alloy to transport fluids, corrosion can be a real concern. Corrosion affects flow rates and efficiency, weakens pipes, and can lead to unexpected and costly shutdowns. Conversely, pipes and fittings made with chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) material are strong enough to withstand the high heat and pressure of industrial processes, while also being inherently inert to most acids, bases, salts and aliphatic hydrocarbons. This means the aggressive ions that attack metal molecules flow right past CPVC, leaving them and the piping unscathed. Let’s take a look at how metal piping corrodes and why CPVC is an effective solution to eliminate this threat in industrial piping systems.
The food and beverage industry depends on processing materials that will not contaminate the supply. When De Marne's stainless steel mustard piping system became compromised, they turn to an alternative material that could withstand the acidic and high temperature conditions of its line. About De Marne Since its startup in 1895, De Marne has been a major producer and world exporter of mustard. Named the official mustard supplier to the Royal Family, it’s highly regarded by consumers across the globe. Their products are available in all Dutch supermarkets, and are exported to many parts of Europe, the United States, Canada, Africa, New Zealand and Australia. The De Marne product presence is also expanding in eastern countries, such as Hungary, Czech Republic, Slovakia, Bulgaria, Romania and Poland. When corrosion was plaguing a previous system of piping and tanks, De Marne found a material that has now delivered reliability for more than a decade.
All piping material inherently becomes more brittle in low temperatures. Because of this, we are often asked, “What is the absolute minimum temperature CPVC can be installed at?” The short answer: there is no known absolute minimum installation temperature for Corzan® CPVC. One manufacturer of industrial Corzan CPVC, IPEX, confirms that high strength joints have been made at temperatures as low as –15°F (–26°C). Oatey and Weld-On, two leading solvent cement manufacturers, assure the same. Regardless of an absolute minimum, all low temperature installations—below 40°F (4°C)—require heightened attention to detail to create a dependable piping system.
When the purity of water and other solutions is critical, each component that comes into contact with the fluid—such as the piping material—must maintain high-purity standards throughout its life. The smallest system impurities can: Inhibit the effectiveness of the system Reduce the life of expensive systems Increase processing downtime Cause health issues for the end product Impurities in a solution are a result of leaching, or the dissolution of metals, solids and chemicals into a fluid. Consider lead piping, for example. Before the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) implemented the Lead and Copper Rule (LCR) in 1991, lead piping was used for plumbing. After the lead pipe began to corrode—whether from water temperature, acidity or a lifetime of wear—the lead would leach harmful contaminants into the water supply. Read on to see why industries should care about leaching and the materials that maintain water purity.
For many applications, industrial piping systems are installed completely or partially outdoors, exposing them to the elements. These can include seasonal temperature changes, wind, rain, snow, salt water and direct sunlight. While thermoplastics ideally weather many of these conditions, some thermoplastics don’t stand up well to direct sunlight, or more specifically, ultraviolet (UV) radiation. After prolonged UV exposure, some thermoplastics begin to chemically breakdown, which can lead to early degradation and shorten the system’s life expectancy. And, because Corzan® CPVC is also a thermoplastic, there are often incorrect assumptions about its UV weatherability. In reality, Corzan CPVC is expertly engineered to stand up to the effects of prolonged UV exposure. Let’s take a look at how UV radiation affects thermoplastics and some CPVC piping systems.
In mineral processing, it’s common for solids to exist in a piping system fluid stream. However, when rocks, sand, minerals or other inorganic compounds in a slurry rub up against the inside of a pipe, material loss can occur. The risk is greatest at the pipe elbows where momentum changes occur. As a piping system’s wall thickness is worn away, the pipe’s pressure rating and overall mechanical integrity can decrease, potentially leading to pipe leaks or failure. How quickly a piping material wears away is contingent on two things, the fluid flowing through it and its abrasion resistance. Abrasion resistance is the ability of a material to resist material loss when another material is rubbed against it. Due to the molecular makeup of each material, some withstand wear better than others. To reduce abrasion and preserve pipe quality, look to optimize both system conditions and piping materials. Here’s how.
Surge pressure is caused when the velocity of fluid through a piping system suddenly changes, typically by a valve opening or closing. This dramatic pressure change creates a shock wave within the pipes, which travels back through the fluid and exerts pressure on the piping walls and fittings. This additional pressure puts stress on the piping material and its joints. In combination with normal operating pressure, piping material, fittings, flanges and hangers can weaken with repetitive shock waves, potentially resulting in leaks and other costly issues. From pipe size to material choice, there are configurations you can design into your system to limit the impact of hydraulic shock and keep the total system pressure (normal operating pressure + hydraulic shock) within the design pressure of the system.
Piping systems are designed to satisfy a specific flow rate and fluid pressure at critical junctions within an industrial application. If the pressure is too great or insufficient, operational issues can emerge leading to avoidable expenses. As part of this, industrial engineers must account for pressure loss (or pressure drop). Pressure loss is the result of frictional forces exerted on a fluid within a piping system, resisting its flow. As pressure loss increases, the energy required by system pumps to compensate also increases, leading to greater operating costs. Complicating things further, some of the factors affecting pressure loss can vary over the life of a piping system. In some cases, design considerations must be made up front to account for influences that won’t surface for five to ten years. So how can an industrial process truly optimize its piping system for pressure loss both now and over the life the system? The answer starts with understanding what influences pressure loss.
In power generation boiler systems, water purity is critical, as the slightest contaminant can lead to deposits, corrosion and scaling on the turbine blades or tubing, reducing efficiency and limiting the life of the system. Boiler water comes from natural bodies, which contain many impurities, including dissolved gases (i.e. oxygen and carbon dioxide) and minerals (e.g. calcium and magnesium) that must be removed from the fluid. To remove the mineral impurities, the feed water goes through a demineralization process, which removes ions that can be detrimental to the system. In this post, our product and engineering team breaks down how demineralization is achieved through ion exchange, and offers advice on the vessel, container and piping materials best suited for this process.
By: Jorge Solorio Solvent cement is the recommended joining method for many industrial CPVC systems. These solutions use a combination of solvents and resin to fuse the polymer chains of two CPVC pieces. When solvents and resin are used to unbind and then fuse the molecules of any thermoplastic material, the newly formed joint needs time to dry and harden. This process is referred to as curing. If the system isn’t given time to fully cure, weak joints can cause issues within a system, specifically leaks. So, what does it mean for a CPVC schedule 40 or schedule 80 piping joint or CPVC duct joint to be fully cured, and how long does that process take?
Effective feed water processing is an essential part of any boiler system, especially when the boiler is used in power generation. Feed water processing requires corrosive solutions that can eat away at and weaken metal materials. In addition, other chemicals are used that can cause scaling within the system, choking off the flow of water and increasing pressure. In the case of power generation, another major and unique concern is the efficacy and lifetime of the turbine blades. During power generation, the boiler creates the steam that turns the generator turbine, but if this steam contains impurities or hardness from boiler feed water, it can cause corrosion and scale on the blades. To ensure the efficiency and long-term performance of your power generation system, our product and engineering team developed this post to walk through how boiler feed water treatment systems typically work, and call out the areas that can be problematic to metal piping systems.
WEFTEC® is the largest annual water quality event in the world. Industry professionals from around the world gather to find the best water quality education and training available today. At this year's event, the Water Environmental Federation's Technical Exhibition and Conference (WEFTEC) will be celebrating 90 years of the event. The exhibition floor will host technology leaders at the forefront of the field, including Corzan® Industrial Systems. Stop by booth #6451, where our team of regional CPVC product and engineering specialists will be on hand to provide advice, information, and training on piping systems for water and wastewater treatment applications. Specifically, we can explain how advanced CPVC technology can increase operational efficiency, minimize downtime and improve bottom line performance. Learn more about CPVC, the pipe and fitting material more wastewater engineers are turning to. Event Details: Where: McCormick Place in Chicago, Illinois Dates: Conference: September 30 - October 4, 2017 (Exhibition: October 2 - 4, 2017) Booth: 6451 More Details: Visit www.weftec.org.
Stand alone Corzan® CPVC piping is inherently tough. Its high heat distortion temperature, impact resistance, and pressure rating can stand up to the demands of many industrial applications. That said, there are chemical processes that require corrosion resistance, but have a fluid temperature exceeding Corzan piping’s working range. For these situations, dual laminates are becoming more commonly specified. Dual laminates combine the superior chemical resistance of Corzan CPVC with the mechanical strength of fiber reinforced plastics (FRP). This translates to longer service life, lower maintenance costs, and improved reliability.
The Corzan® CPVC Building Information Modeling (BIM) objects and specifications library has been expanded. Previously, pipe and fittings were only available up to 8 in.—now find pipe sizes up to 24 in. and fittings up to 14 in. (fittings larger than 14 in. are currently fabricated, not injection molded). We expanded our CPVC pipe, fittings and valves library to enhance our support of industrial engineers, designers and architects. With access to these files, users can better: Detect and prevent design conflicts. Quickly create multiple designs to compare and identify the best value-engineered solution. Create detailed outputs for accurate cost estimates. Lower costs by reducing on-site errors and delays. Communicate clearly with non-technical investors and design makers.
The chemical processing industry (CPI) continues to be a tough environment for creating safe composite structures that mitigate corrosion degradation. Today, more design engineers and material specifiers are calling for fiber reinforced plastics (FRP) in both new and replacement equipment used in chemical processing operations. B&D Plastics is a fabricator of dual laminate structures. Their unique fabricating process allows for the handling of fluids at very high temperatures and is impervious to corrosives. To develop products capable of standing up to its customers’ demanding applications, B&D Plastics specifies Corzan® chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) manufactured by IPEX USA.
In virtually every industry today, manufacturers look for ways to make operations more cost effective. In the pulp and paper industry, this includes seeking new piping materials and methods that reduce costs while maintaining piping performance and satisfying processing requirements. The key objective is to find new or improved corrosion resistant materials that reduce overall costs and maintenance, while providing long-term service. To reduce costs and maintain lifecycle performance, paper and pulp mills are increasingly specifying piping systems made from Corzan® CPVC (chlorinated polyvinyl chloride). Read further to learn how this industrial thermoplastic delivers a high performing balance of properties that provide value to paper and pulp applications.
When the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published the Cluster Rule in 1998, pulp and paper manufacturers industry-wide began to make operational adjustments to become compliant by April 2001. Aimed at reducing emissions, the Cluster Rule called for the introduction of uniform pollution prevention and control technologies. For Smurfit-Stone Container Corporation, that meant a major reconfiguration of its bleached market pulp operation in Panama City, Florida, including extensive changes to its bleach plant. The corporation relied on BE&K Engineering Co. to identify cost-effective construction materials that would provide reliable performance in the harsh environment.
In a field that's historically been led by metal, chlorinated polyvinylchloride (CPVC) is gaining tremendous traction as the piping material of choice for many industrial applications. This is thanks to CPVC's: Superior corrosion resistance High distortion temperature Pressure rating Ease of installation Lower life-cycle cost However, when considering CPVC piping, it’s important to note that not all CPVC material performs the same. Each manufacturer's CPVC compound is made with base resins that have different molecular weights and varying chlorine contents, as well as different compound additives that can affect compatibility and long-term performance. To ensure a provider's CPVC satisfies the demands of your industrial application, ask the following four questions.
To simplify the process of integrating Corzan® CPVC pipe, fittings and valves into your industrial plant CAD designs, we’ve made our product Building Information Modeling (BIM) objects and specifications available for download. With access to these files, engineers and architects can now: Detect and prevent design conflicts. Quickly create multiple designs to compare and identify the best value-engineered solution. Create detailed outputs for accurate cost estimates. Lower costs by reducing on-site errors and delays. Communicate clearly with non-technical investors and design makers.
Industrial applications create some of the harshest conditions to which a material can be subjected. Consequently, the materials intended for use in these environments must be especially resilient. For instance, extremely corrosive chemicals essential in applications, such as chemical processing and wastewater treatment, must be stored, processed and transported safely and effectively. This requires containment materials that possess very high corrosion-resistant properties. The vessels designed to contain these chemicals have been traditionally composed of steel, fiberglass or exotic alloys, but chemical tank manufacturers have learned that the lifespan of these materials is limited by their inherent chemical resistance qualities. As a result, fabricators have begun the practice of adding more robust chemical-resistance layers into dual-laminate tanks to create longer-lasting containers. This has directly helped to limit the amount of downtime manufacturers must endure related to repairs and tank replacement.
In 2006, Netherlands-based AkzoNobel Base Chemicals B.V. constructed its chlorine plant based on Asahi membrane electrolysis technology. Based on current experiences with chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) in its Rotterdam-Botlek plant and recommendations from AkzoNobel Technology & Engineering in Arnhem, plant engineers chose Corzan® CPVC for its pipelines (total 1000 meters or 3280 feet). Specific applications included: Shower system using standalone CPVC Wet chlorine using FRP / CPVC Anolyte using FRP / CVPC A Corzan CPVC piping system offered a number of advantages over other piping options, as well as versatility across many distinct needs.
For many industrial plants, metal piping systems have been the norm for decades, especially when corrosive chemicals, high heat and pressure are involved. However, quietly, chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) has been usurping metal as the preferred industrial piping material thanks to its corrosion resistance, high heat distortion temperature, superior pressure rating, and low installation and life-cycle costs. If you’re new to CPVC piping for industrial applications, below we have answered some of the questions commonly asked by customers.
Past Performance of Corzan CPVC System Proves Claims of Durability and Cost-Effective Service Life In 2005, and again in 2006, a Colorado-based litho plant decided to modify its two aluminum substrate manufacturing lines to increase capacity. Because of its already well established reputation, there was only one piping material considered by the engineering design team – Corzan's chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC). This is because the high-performance material had already proven it provides an extended service life, improved process utilization and lower life-cycle costs. It had been doing so since 1992 when it was first used on a new fluid handling line at the manufacturing center for medical x-ray film, photographic papers and aluminum lithographic printing plates. Nearly 15 years later, that schedule 80, CPVC line was still fully operational, providing the necessary corrosion resistance and mechanical strength to effectively handle the harsh chemicals being pumped under pressures up to 80 psi at temperatures up to 180˚F without leaks.
When Goodrich’s Aerospace Landing Gear Division changed its chromium emission control system from a wet-pack scrubbing system to dry-mist eliminators, it wanted to be certain it satisfied Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) requirements. The system designer / supplier provided two separate systems for Goodrich, each serving half of the company’s chromium processing lines with the capability of changing from one to the other in the event of an emergency. The company designed a system well below the MACT standard of 0.015 mg/cu meter. The two systems were installed in December 1995 and January 1996. When independent test data was collected and tabulated in July 1996, both systems were at least 10 times better than the designer’s criteria and even lower than the 0.015 mg/cu meter required by the MACT standard.
Water and wastewater infrastructure in the U.S. continues to deteriorate as its repair stays on the back burner due to economic uncertainty and lack of funds. To address costly repair issues, engineers and end users must think beyond what was good enough in the past and adopt innovative technologies that offer more economical installation, higher durability and reduced total life-cycle costs.
The safety performance of industrial piping material cannot be overstated—these environments have hundreds, often thousands, of lives at stake, causing them to be closely monitored and regulated by government bodies such as the U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration and the Environmental Protective Agency (EPA). Add cost and reliability to the list of important factors when considering industrial piping choices, and it’s clear why material selection for process water applications is such an important one. Among the many piping choices in the industry, the superior strength, performance and safety of chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) make it an ideal system for industrial process water applications. Traditionally, engineers and procurement professionals have relied largely on steel and other higher alloys for industrial piping. However, an overall analysis reveals that CPVC often outperforms metallic systems and is more cost effective over a longer period of time. Yielding an overall lower installation cost, fewer maintenance and safety concerns, and strong performance with a wide variety of chemicals, CPVC is a material that is gaining the attention of many. And the benefits don’t stop there. CPVC offers eight primary advantages that can, and have improved the bottom line of industrial process water applications worldwide.
The Electric Power Conference and Exhibition is one of the largest conferences for the power generation industry. The event brings together power generation professionals from around the world to meet, network and address critical issues facing the industry. If you’re attending, stop by our Lubrizol Advanced Materials booth #104. Our team of regional CPVC product and engineering specialists will be on hand to provide advice, information, and training on power generation pipe and fitting systems. Specifically, we can explain how advanced CPVC technology can increase operational efficiency, minimize downtime and improve bottom line performance. Event Details: Where: McCormick Place West, Hall F1 in Chicago, Illinois Dates: Conference: April 10-13 (Exhibition: April 10-12) More Details: Visit 2017.electricpowerexpo.com.
Sulfuric acid is one of the most dangerous chemicals in the world. Because of its corrosiveness, high concentrations can cause expensive damage to industrial machinery, and even weak concentrations can cause eye, nose, throat and skin burns in people, along with chronic respiratory damage in case of long-term exposure. However, when processed and handled properly, sulfuric acid is one of the most useful industrial chemicals in the world—an important ingredient in fertilizer, batteries, detergents and other products that are used around the world every day. Sulfuric acid is a by-product of zinc. When zinc ore, which also contains sulfur, is heated to 1750°F (950°C), it releases sulfur dioxide gas, which is then collected, cleaned and processed into sulfuric acid.
Savvy specifiers know that when selecting a piping system, it's not just the purchase price that matters when choosing a product that's designed for long-term performance. When evaluating an industrial piping system, this is certainly the case. The key to getting the best value from a piping system today, tomorrow and beyond typically requires a lifecycle cost analysis tailored to your specific plant. This analysis should reflect your plant's fluid temperatures, line pressures, and chemical environments, among other things.
Delta® Faucet Company’s Greensburg, Ind., plant is the largest of its three faucet manufacturing sites, with 1,150 employees producing 1,500 different products. The engineers needed a piping material that could meet a variety of criteria: Corrosion resistance High-temperature resistance Resistance to acids and bases Meet stringent safety assurance standards Easy to modify and repair Taking each requirement into account, Delta engineers specified chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) for its metal plating operations.
Industrial-grade chlor-alkali production has been underway for more than 120 years, and in many ways, the principles by which these plants operate have not changed significantly. What has changed is the range of material choices available for chlor-alkali systems. Today, chlor-alkali plants operating across the globe require pipes, tanks, headers, manifolds, storage towers and more to be fabricated with resilient materials that can stand up to some of the harshest conditions existing in any industry.
At Delta Air Lines' Atlanta-based Technical Operations facility, the landing gear of its entire fleet is taken apart, cleaned, metal-plated, and put back together again. A polyvinyl chloride (PVC) system was servicing the ventilation needs in the facilities plating shop, operating under highly aggressive chemicals, very high temperatures, and corrosive conditions. When the system began to fail, Delta knew it had to be replaced by a stronger, more chemically resistant material that could withstand the facility’s corrosive environment.
Handling, storage and processing of corrosive or abrasive liquds and gases is a day-to-day challenge for the chemical processing industry. Engineers are confronted with a wide choice of materials of construction, including: Stand alone thermoplastic Glass fibre reinforced plastic (FRP) Dual laminate constructions with thermoplastics (PVC, CPVC, PE, PP) and/or fluropolymer liners (ECTFE, PVDF, FEP, PFA) Dual laminate technology offers greater safety making it one of the preferred solutions for demanding chemical applications. This is thanks to the combination of superior chemical resistance of thermoplastics with the mechanical strength of FRP.
Considering the wide variety of piping needs in the industrial arena, chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) has proved to be an ideal choice for countless challenging applications for more than 50 years. But, Corzan's applications extend well beyond piping to include: Fittings Valves Pumps Tower packing Other fluid handling products Sheet and duct products, such as tanks and tank linings Ventilation and vapor scrubbing equipment The technology of Corzan CPVC results in undeniable product features, such as: High-temperature capability Excellent chemical resistance to a wide range of highly corrosive liquid and vapor environments Resistance to galvanic corrosion Low heat transfer Good electrical insulation properties Light weight material for ease of installation
Corzan CPVC, the Global Leader in industrial piping systems, has picked up its presence in Latin America industrial markets.
Understand CPVC Piping Savvy specifiers know that cost is not the only factor dictating piping material selection. Those seeking long-term performance in Chemical Processing applications should also account for the demands and environment of the operation. Given the pressure, temperature, and medium, what cost-friendly option will provide the most durability? In this Chemical Processing Special Report, we delve deeper into: Chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) piping and the significant benefits that alternative piping materials or designs may offer. Where CPVC piping fits in terms of cost and performance. Considerations for how CPVC may fit into industrial process water applications.
Duration: 60 Minutes Power Plants create some of the greatest demands for piping systems. The chemicals used in water treatment are not only highly corrosive, but they are also often conveyed at elevated temperatures, subjecting metallic systems to corrosion, process leaks and premature failures that jeopardize plant efficiency, as well as safety and environmental compliance. Even the more expensive alloys, as well as lined carbon steel, are challenged to provide a cost-effective, reliable solution. The presenters will review a variety of thermoplastic piping system materials, with an emphasis on the polymer science of chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC), and how power plant operators are incorporating plastics to mitigate corrosion due to chemical attack on metals.
Webinar Summary: Chemical processing plants create some of the greatest demands for piping systems. The chemicals used are not only highly corrosive, but they are also typically conveyed at high temperatures, subjecting metallic systems to corrosion, process leaks and premature failures that jeopardize plant efficiency, as well as safety and environmental compliance. Even the more expensive alloys, as well as lined carbon steel and such non-metallic alternatives as HDPE and FRP, are challenged to provide a cost-effective, reliable solution. The participants will review the polymer science of chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) and how global CPI plant operators are incorporating the technology to mitigate corrosion due to chemical attack on metals. You will learn how to properly evaluate if CPVC has the right chemical resistance barrier to over 400 CPI common process chemicals. The brief discussion, will focus on how the vinyl technology such as CPVC fits into the solution matrix of CPI facilities. They will build upon the chemical backbone discussed in the first portion of the webinar and see how the science relates to real world solutions in common CPI applications such as hydrochloric acid, sulfuric acid, sodium cyanide, sodium sulfate, phosphoric acid, caustic, DI/RO water, brine, and simple applications such as potable water.
Insights from an industry leader By Bryan Hutton, Corzan® Industrial Piping Systems, part of The Lubrizol Corporation Chlor-alkali plants create some of the most corrosive environments imaginable. The transport of harsh chemicals at extreme temperatures in combination with the high voltage electrolysis process can quickly compromise the integrity of most piping systems. So when one of the largest producers of chlor-alkali products in the world needed a proven-effective solution for transporting and storing its hydrochloric acid, it turned to Thorpe Plant Services in Houston which turned to Corzan® Industrial Systems from The Lubrizol Corporation.
GE Industrial provides a broad range of products and services throughout the world, including appliances, lighting, industrial products, and much more. Twelve years after GE constructed its Uhde Technology chlorine plant at Bergen op Zoom, Maintenance Engineer Henk Akkermans decided to convert the plant's fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) piping to FRP / chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) dual-laminate piping. The upgrade to FRP / CPVC was made because Corzan® CPVC can be relied on to satisfy the demands of the plant's wet chlorine lines, including high heat and pressure. The FRP then provides an additional layer of structural support to the pipe, ensuring strength and safety. The piping is used in the wet chlorine lines before the butterfly valve to the dry-chlorine section. Here the piping is subjected to: Heat: 194°F (90°C) Pressure: < 0.24 Bar Acidity: pH > 4